Best Academic Services in Town

IELTS READING

Reading test for IElTS Academic and IELTS General Training will be different.There are three reading passages for IELTS Academic Reading and three sections for IELTS General Training test.

IELTS Reading Test Necessary Information

  • Time allowed – 60 minutes.
  • There are 40 questions.
  • Text may contain non verbal material such as illustrations and diagrams.
  • Academic reading test contains texts from books, magazines and newspapers.
  • General training reading test contains text topics relevant to everyday life.

Areas of Assessment

In reading test, skill involved in reading and understanding will be tested.

  • Reading for detail and main ideas.
  • Recognizing writer’s opinion.
  • Understanding of implied meaning and development of arguments.

IELTS Academic Reading Test

  • There are 3 sections.
  • Each section contains reading passage.
  • Texts are taken from books, magazines and newspapers. 
  • Texts are usually factual and descriptive.
  • Glossary will be provided for difficult terminology.
  • At least one paragraph contains detailed logical information.
  • The passages may vary in length.(on average 650 to 1200 words)

IELTS General Training Reading Test

  • It also includes three sections.
  • One or two texts will be included in each section.
  • Sources of text is usually the same as academic reading test.
  • Section 1 – Relevant to everyday English life.
  • Section 2 – Relevant to work issues.
  • Section 3 – Based on topic of general interest and is much longer and the most difficult.

Types of Questions

  • Multiple choice
  • Identifying information ( True/False/Not Given )
  • Matching information
  • Matching headings
  • Matching features
  • Matching sentence endings.
  • Sentence completion
  • Summary completion
  • Note completion
  • Table completion
  • Flow chart completion
  • Diagram label completion
  • Short-answer questions

Sample Questions

IELTS Academic Reading Test

  1. A)While cities and their metropolitan areas have always interacted with and shaped the natural environment, it is only recently that historians have begun to consider this relationship. During our own time, the tension between natural and urbanized areas has increased, as the spread of metropolitan populations and urban land uses has reshaped and destroyed natural landscapes and environments.
  2. B)The relationship between the city and the natural environment has actually been circular, with cities having massive effects on the natural environment, while the natural environment, in turn, has profoundly shaped urban configurations. Urban history is filled with stories about how city dwellers contended with the forces of nature that threatened their lives. Nature not only caused many of the annoyances of daily urban life, such as bad weather and pests, but it also gave rise to natural disasters and catastrophes such as floods, fires, and earthquakes. In order to protect themselves and their settlements against the forces of nature, cities built many defences including flood walls and dams, earthquake-resistant buildings, and storage places for food and water. At times, such protective steps sheltered urbanites against the worst natural furies, but often their own actions – such as building under the shadow of volcanoes, or in earthquake-prone zones – exposed them to danger from natural hazards.
  3. C)City populations require food, water, fuel, and construction materials, while urban industries need natural materials for production purposes. In order to fulfill these needs, urbanites increasingly had to reach far beyond their boundaries. In the nineteenth century, for instance, the demands of city dwellers for food produced rings of garden farms around cities. In the twentieth century, as urban populations increased, the demand for food drove the rise of large factory farms. Cities also require fresh water supplies in order to exist – engineers built waterworks, dug wells deeper and deeper into the earth looking for groundwater, and dammed and diverted rivers to obtain water supplies for domestic and industrial uses. In the process of obtaining water from distant locales, cities often transformed them, making deserts where there had been fertile agricultural areas.
  4. D)Urbanites had to seek locations to dispose of the wastes they produced. Initially, they placed wastes on sites within the city, polluting the air, land, and water with industrial and domestic effluents. As cities grew larger, they disposed of their wastes by transporting them to more distant locations. Thus, cities constructed sewerage systems for domestic wastes. They usually discharged the sewage into neighbouring waterways, often polluting the water supply of downstream cities.

The air and the land also became dumps for waste disposal. In the late nineteenth century, coal became the preferred fuel for industrial, transportation, and domestic use. But while providing an inexpensive and plentiful energy supply, coal was also very dirty. The cities that used it suffered from air contamination and reduced sunlight, while the cleaning tasks of householders were greatly increased.

  1. E)In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, reformers began demanding urban environmental cleanups and public health improvements. Women’s groups often took the lead in agitating for clean air and clean water, showing a greater concern than men in regard to quality of life and health-related issues. The replacement of the horse, first by electric trolleys and then by the car, brought about substantial improvements in street and air sanitation. The movements demanding clean air, however, and reduction of waterway pollution were largely unsuccessful. On balance, urban sanitary conditions were probably somewhat better in the 1920s than in the late nineteenth century, but the cost of improvement often was the exploitation of urban hinterlands for water supplies, increased downstream water pollution, and growing automobile congestion and pollution.
  2. F)In the decades after the 1940s, city environments suffered from heavy pollution as they sought to cope with increased automobile usage, pollution from industrial production, new varieties of chemical pesticides and the wastes of an increasingly consumer-oriented economy. Cleaner fuels and smoke control laws largely freed cities during the 1940s and 1950s of the dense smoke that they had previously suffered from. Improved urban air quality resulted largely from the substitution of natural gas and oil for coal and the replacement of the steam locomotive by the diesel-electric. However, great increases in automobile usage in some larger cities produced the new phenomenon of smog, and air pollution replaced smoke as a major concern.
  3. G)During these decades, the suburban out-migration, which had begun in the nineteenth century with commuter trains and streetcars and accelerated because of the availability and convenience of the automobile, now increased to a torrent, putting major strains on the formerly rural and undeveloped metropolitan fringes. To a great extent, suburban layouts ignored environmental considerations, making little provision for open space, producing endless rows of resource-consuming and fertilizer-dependent lawns, contaminating groundwater through leaking septic tanks, and absorbing excessive amounts of fresh water and energy. The growth of the outer city since the 1970s reflected a continued preference on the part of many people in the western world for space-intensive single-family houses surrounded by lawns, for private automobiles over public transit, and for the development of previously untouched areas. Without better planning for land use and environmental protection, urban life will, as it has in the past, continue to damage and stress the natural environment.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven sections, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

List of Phrases

i  Legislation brings temporary improvements

ii  The increasing speed of suburban development

iii  A new area of academic interest

iv  The impact of environmental extremes on city planning

v  The first campaigns for environmental change

vi  Building cities in earthquake zones

vii  The effect of global warming on cities

viii  Adapting areas surrounding cities to provide resources

ix  Removing the unwanted by-products of city life

x  Providing health information for city dwellers

1) Paragraph A  iii

2) Paragraph B  iv

3) Paragraph C  viii

4) Paragraph D  ix

5) Paragraph E  v

6) Paragraph F  i

7) Paragraph G  ii

 

Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1.

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE

if the statement is true according to the passage

FALSE

if the statement is false according to the passage

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage

8) In the nineteenth century, water was brought into the desert to create productive farming land.  FALSE

9) Women were often the strongest campaigners for environmental reform.  TRUE

10) Reducing urban air and water pollution in the early twentieth century was extremely expensive.  NOT GIVEN

11) The introduction of the car led to increased suburban development.  TRUE

12) Suburban lifestyles in many western nations fail to take account of environmental protection.  TRUE

13) Many governments in the developed world are trying to halt the spread of the suburbs.  NOT GIVEN

 

 

IELTS General Training Reading Test

 

During the first year of a child’s life, parents and carers are concerned with its physical development; during the second year, they watch the baby’s language development very carefully. It is interesting just how easily children learn language. Children who are just three or four years old, who cannot yet tie their shoelaces, are able to speak in full sentences without any specific language training.

The current view of child language development is that it is an instinct – something as natural as eating or sleeping. According to experts in this area, this language instinct is innate – something each of us is born with. But this prevailing view has not always enjoyed widespread acceptance.

In the middle of last century, experts of the time, including a renowned professor at Harvard University in the United States, regarded child language development as the process of learning through mere repetition. Language “habits” developed as young children were rewarded for repeating language correctly and ignored or punished when they used incorrect forms of language. Over time, a child, according to this theory, would learn language much like a dog might learn to behave properly through training.

Yet even though the modern view holds that language is instinctive, experts like Assistant Professor Lise Eliot are convinced that the interaction a child has with its parents and caregivers is crucial to its developments. The language of the parents and caregivers act as models for the developing child. In fact, a baby’s day-to-day experience is so important that the child will learn to speak in a manner very similar to the model speakers it hears.

Given that the models parents provide are so important, it is interesting to consider the role of “baby talk” in the child’s language development. Baby talk is the language produced by an adult speaker who is trying to exaggerate certain aspects of the language to capture the attention of a young baby.

Dr Roberta Golinkoff believes that babies benefit from baby talk. Experiments show that immediately after birth babies respond more to infant-directed talk than they do to adult-directed talk. When using baby talk, people exaggerate their facial expressions, which helps the baby to begin to understand what is being communicated. She also notes that the exaggerated nature and repetition of baby talk helps infants to learn the difference between sounds. Since babies have a great deal of information to process, baby talk helps. Although there is concern that baby talk may persist too long, Dr Golinkoff says that it stops being used as the child gets older, that is, when the child is better able to communicate with the parents.

Professor Jusczyk has made a particular study of babies’ ability to recognise sounds, and says they recognise the sound of their own names as early as four and a half months. Babies know the meaning of Mummy and Daddy by about six months, which is earlier than was previously believed. By about nine months, babies begin recognizing frequent patterns in language. A baby will listen longer to the sounds that occur frequently, so it is good to frequently call the infant by its name.

An experiment at Johns Hopkins University in USA, in which researchers went to the homes of 16 nine-month-olds, confirms this view. The researchers arranged their visits for ten days out of a two-week period. During each visit the researcher played an audio tape that included the same three stories. The stories included odd words such as “python” or “hornbill”, words that were unlikely to be encountered in the babies’ everyday experience. After a couple of weeks during which nothing was done, the babies were brought to the research lab, where they listened to two recorded lists of words. The first list included words heard in the story. The second included similar words, but not the exact ones that were used in the stories.

Jusczyk found the babies listened longer to the words that had appeared in the stories, which indicated that the babies had extracted individual words from the story. When a control group of 16 nine-month-olds, who had not heard the stories, listened to the two groups of words, they showed no preference for either list.

This does not mean that the babies actually understand the meanings of the words, just the sound patterns. It supports the idea that people are born to speak and have the capacity to learn language from the day they are born. This ability is enhanced if they are involved in conversation. And, significantly, Dr Eliot reminds parents that babies and toddlers need to feel they are communicating. Clearly, sitting in front of the television is not enough; the baby must be having an interaction with another speaker.

 

Question 1 – 6

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

The study of (1) language development in very young children has changed considerably in the last 50 years. It has been established that children can speak independently at age (2) 3-4 years, and that this ability is innate. The child will, in fact, follow the speech patterns and linguistic behaviour of its carers and parents who act as (3) models. 

Babies actually benefit from “baby talk”, in which adults (4) exaggerate both sounds and facial expressions. Babies’ ability to (5) recognise sound patterns rather than words comes earlier than was previously thought. It is very important that babies are included in (6) conversation / interaction / communication.

 

 Question 7 – 12

 Do the following  agree with the views of writer given in Reading Passage. Write.

In boxes 7-12 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE

if the statement is true according to the passage

FALSE

if the statement is false according to the passage

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage

7) Children can learn their language without being taught.Yes

8) From the time of their birth, humans seem to have an ability to learn language.Yes

9) According to experts in the 1950s and ‘60s, language learning is very similar to the training of animals.Yes

10) Repetition in language learning is important, according to Dr Eliot.Not Given

11) Dr Golinkoff is concerned that “baby talk” is spoken too much by some parents.No

12) The first word a child learns to recognise is usually “Mummy” or “Daddy”.No

Email: info@basitielts.com

Call Us:+92-335-4227776         

 


Facebook


Instagram


Linkedin


Youtube

 

               © [oceanwp_date] Basit-IELTS